June 13: On This Day in World History … briefly

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323BC:  Alexander The Great, King of Macedon, who came to the throne at the age of only 20 and conquered Persia, Egypt, Babylon, central Asia and part of India, dies aged 33 returning from India.

Naples National Archaeological Museum – The Alexander Mosaic – Wikipedia

The Alexander Mosaic showing the detail of Alexander the Great – Wikipedia

1381:   Workers march against poll tax

Flemish merchants were killed and the Savoy Palace, home of John of Gaunt, the king’s uncle, was burnt down as a crowd of angry peasants marched on London. The marchers, agricultural workers from Kent and Essex in south-east England, were led by Walter ‘Wat’ Tyler. Urban workers were also said to have joined the marchers and similar protests were being launched in East Anglia. Although economic unrest had been brewing since the 1350s, it was the unpopular new tax – ‘poll tax’ – that finally brought matters to a head. Workers were also angry about the imposition of a maximum wage – labour was in short supply since the ravages of the Black Death, and the new wage restrictions limited workers’ pay claims. The protest had taken the government by surprise, and the peasants were in no mood to be ignored. There seemed little doubt however, that this ‘Peasants’ Revolt’ would be crushed – putting little pressure on the king to make changes

Peasants Revolt – Death of Wat Tyler

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 1340 to 1399 – Wikipedia

1774:   Rhode Island became the first American colony to ban the importation of slaves and to assure their freedom. The new act, passed by the General Assembly in Newport, stated ‘No Negro nor mulatto slave shall be brought into this colony, and in case any slave shall be brought in, he or she shall be … rendered immediately free …’

Inspection and sale of slaves – Wikipedia

1842:   Queen Victoria becomes the first British monarch to travel by train when she takes a trip from Slough to Paddington.

Queen Victoria by Bassano – Wikipedia

Earliest known photograph of Victoria here with her eldest daughter circa 1845 – Wikipedia

1886:   Mad King Ludwig in suicide riddle

King Ludwig II of Bavaria and his physician drowned in Lake Starnberg near Munich. The death was being treated as suicide. The Kind had a history of mental disorders and was declared insane earlier in the month. His struggle with homosexuality, as revealed in his diaries, must also have added to his psychological distress. Ludwig ascended the throne at 18, in 1864. A devoted patron of the composer Richard Wagner, the King spent much of his energy in building magnificent, fairytale castles and staging extravagant artistic performances.

Portrait of Ludwig II, King of Bavaria – Image by Stefano Bianchetti/ Corbis – Wikipedia

Ludwig II just after his accession to the throne of Bavaria in 1864 – Wikipedia

1893:   The first women’s golf championship is held at Royal Lytham in Britain and won by Lady Margaret Scott.

Royal Lytham – Wikipedia

Lady Margaret Scott – Wikipedia

1900:   Boxers fight for China’s pride

A group of volunteer soldiers known as the ‘Boxers’, go on a rampage through Peking in a protest against the ‘foreign devils’ who had such a hold on their country. Weakened by a century of conflict, both internal and external, China had over the years agreed to a series of treaties which gave away large slices of the ‘national cake’ to foreign powers, notably the United States, Europe and Japan. Resentment against the terms of the treaties had, until then, only bubbled below the surface, but these latest events, said to have been actively encouraged by the Chinese authorities, show just how deep the Chinese anger really was.

A French political cartoon depicting China as a pie about to be carved up by Queen Victoria (Britain), Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany), Tsar Nicholas II (Russia), Marianne (France) and a samurai (Japan), while a Chinese mandarin helplessly looks on – Wikipedia

Model of a Chinese Boxer armed with a spear and sword by George S Stuart – Wikipedia

1930:   Sir Henry Segrave, who broke the British land and water speed records, is killed when his speedboat capsizes at 98mph (158kph) on Lake Windermere in northern England.

Henry Segrave at the 1921 French Grand Prix – Wikipedia

Segrave at the 1922 French Grand Prix held in Strasbourg – Wikipedia

Sir Henry Segrave aboard Miss Alacrity in 1929 – Wikipedia

1944:   ‘Doodle bugs’ batter London

London came under shock attack as Hitler lets loose a devastating new weapon on the city. The so-called VI flying bomb, or ‘doodle bug’, as it had been nicknamed, was a long-range device that could be launched safely from within enemy territory. Travelling at lightning speed, it moved too fast for anti-aircraft guns to target it accurately and its super-power warhead brought down any fighter plane attempting to intercept it. Nazi scientists were said to have been working on the bomb for some time, but British intelligence had not known where it was being made or when it would be used. Ultimately the only way to deal with it may be to discover and destroy its launch sites.

VI Flying Bomb – Wikipedia

On 13 June 1944 the first V1 struck London next to the railway bridge on Grove Road Mile End which now carries an English Heritage blue plaque Eight civilians were killed in the blast – Wikipedia

1951:   Princess Elizabeth, heir to the British throne, lays the foundation stone of the National Theatre on the South Bank in London.

National Theatre, South Bank London – Wikipedia

HRH Princess Elizabeth in Auxiliary Territorial Service uniform April 1945 – Wikipedia

1956:   Real Madrid win the first European Cup in Paris, beating Stade de Reims 4-3.

The Parc des Princes in Paris hosted the final in 1955 – Wikipedia

1988:   The first beauty contest is held in the Soviet Union.

Georgiana Seymour Duchess of Somerset was crowned the Queen of Beauty at the Eglinton Tournament of 1839 the first known beauty pageant – Wikipedia

1989:   Mikhail Gorbachev and Chancellor Kohl agree that East and West Germany should be reunited.

Helmut Kohl in Krzyżowa Kreisau during his visit to Poland in 1989 that coincided with the fall of the Berlin Wall – Wikipedia

 

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  AUTHOR
South Coast Herald

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